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Term Definition

The process of wetting the cell with electrolyte, followed by the charging or formation process to prepare the cell or battery for use.

Activation Time

The time interval from the moment activation is initiated to the moment the desired operating voltage is obtained in a cell or battery.

Active Material

electrode material which produces electricity during its chemical conversion.


Unit of electrical current. (Volts/Watts=Amps or V/W=A)

Ampere Hour (Ah)

The capacity of a storage battery is measured in ampere-hours. One ampere hour is defined as a current flow of one ampere for a period of one hour. Five ampere-hours means a current flow of one ampere for five hours, a current flow of 2 1/2 ampere for 2 hours, or any multiple of current and time that will result in five. This relationship can be expressed as follows: Capacity (In ampere hours)= I*T. Where I is the current (in amperes) and T is the time (in hours). The capacity of a storage battery is usually based on a given discharge rate, since the capacity will vary with the rate of discharge. The capacity of an aircraft battery is usually based on a one hour discharge rate. A 17 ampere hour battery will supply a current of approximately 17 amperes for a period of one hour. A 34 ampere battery will deliver twice that amount of current over the same period of time. If a very heavy load is applied to the battery, it may become discharged in a few minutes.


A combination of two or more chemical cells electronically connected together to produce electric energy.(Common usage permits this designation to be applied also to a single cell used independently.)

Boost Charge

A charge applied to a battery which is already near a state of full charge, usually of short duration.

C1 Rate

Discharge or current rate in amperes; numerically equal to rated capacity of a cell in ampere-hours.


The quantity of electricity delivered by a battery under specified conditions, usually expressed in ampere-hours

Capacity Reconditioning

See Reconditioning.

Capacity, Functional Loss Of

Reduction in cell capacity due to nonstandard charging or discharging parameters such as cell temperature, current, and discharge voltage cutoff. See also Failure, Functional.

Capacity, Permanent Loss Of

Reduction in cell capacity from .as new. value, under standard rating conditions, not recoverable by reconditioning. See also Failure, Permanent.

Capacity, Rated

See Nominal Capacity.

Capacity, Residual

Capacity remaining at particular point in time after any set of operating conditions, usually including a partial discharge or long rest.

Capacity, Restorable

See Capacity, Temporary Loss Of.

Capacity, Temporary Loss Of

Reduction in cell capacity that is recovered when the cell is subjected to several reconditioning cycles.

Capacity, Useful

See Ampere Hour Capacity.


The battery box or enclosure which contains the cells and associated connectors and hardware.

CB Series

as pertaining to Concorde Battery Corporation


An electrochemical device composed of positive and negative plates, separator, and electrolyte which is capable of storing electrical energy. When encased in a container and fitted with terminals, it is the basic building block of the battery.

Cell Reversal

Reversing of polarity within a cell in a multi-cell battery due to over discharge.


The conversion of electrical energy from an external source, into chemical energy within a cell or battery.

Charge Rate

The rate at which current is applied to a secondary cell or battery to restore its capacity.

Charge Retention

The tendency of a charged cell or battery to resist self-discharge.

Charge, State of

The condition of a storage cell or battery in terms of the remaining capacity.


Device capable of supplying electrical energy to a battery.


The process of converting electrical energy to stored chemical energy.

Charging Efficiency

Ratio of the capacity delivered on discharge, after being fully charged, to the capacity needed to restore full charge to the cell or battery.


RG batteries have one-way cell vent valves designed to relieve excess positive internal pressure. Occasionally, when the atmospheric pressure is greater than the internal pressure of the battery, caused by rapid decrease in altitude, the battery case may become temporarily concave.


An electrically conducive bar or wire which joins individual cells together in a battery.

Constant Current (CI) Charge

Charging technique where the output current of the charge source is held constant. Warning! This procedure may damage the battery if performed on a repetitive basis.

Constant Potential (CP) Charge

Charging technique where the output voltage of the charge source is held constant and the current is limited only by the resistance of the battery.


The cell enclosure in which the plates, separator and electrolyte are held. It is made up of the cell jar and cover that are permanently joined.


Undesirable element, usually in the electrolyte, which reduced the capability of the cell. In vented cells, contaminants can be introduced by use of tap water or operation without vent cap.


Electrochemical or electronic device, capable of integrating current time, used for charge control.

Counter EMF

Voltage or a cell or battery opposing the voltage of the charging source.


The rate of flow of electricity. The movement of electrons along a conductor. It is comparable to the flow of a stream of water. The unit of measurement is an ampere.

Current Density

The amount of electric current passing through a given cross-sectional area of a conductor in amperes per square inch, i.e: the ratio of the current in amperes to the cross-sectional area of the conductor.

Cut Off Voltage

Battery voltage reached at the termination of a discharge. Also known as end point voltage or EPV.


On sequence of charge and discharge.

Cycle Life

For secondary (rechargeable) cells or batteries, the total number of charge/discharge cycles before the cell or battery becomes inoperative.

Deep Discharge

Withdrawal of 50% or more of the rated capacity of a cell or battery.

Deionized Water

Water which has been freed of ions by treatment with ion exchange resins.

Depth Of Discharge

The portion of the nominal capacity from a cell or battery taken out during each discharge cycle, expressed in percent. Shallow depth of discharge is considered as 10% or less, deep depth of discharge is considered 50% or more.


The conversion of the chemical energy of a cell or battery into electrical energy and withdrawal of the electrical energy into a load.

Discharge rate

The rate of current flow from a cell or battery.

Distilled Water

Water which has been freed of ions by a process of vaporization and subsequent condensation.

Drain Discharge

Withdrawal of all charge capacity from a cell or battery at a reduced current rate after the cell of battery has been partially discharged at a higher current rate.

Dry Charge

Process by which the electrodes are formed and assembled in a charged state. The cell or battery is activated when the electrolyte is added.

Dry Shelf Life

The period of time that a cell or battery can stand without electrolyte before deteriorating beyond a point where a specified capacity or voltage level can no longer be obtained, when packed and stored accord to specifications.


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